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Critical Analysis

by L. Levergneux

Design Features

typographic: The outside of the insert was designed in Photoshop using Arial Narrow and Futura fonts. The inside of the insert was designed in Adobe PageMaker using Arial Narrow and Futura fonts. Text is in French/English.

imagery: The digital photographs created in Photoshop were printed in full colour on die-cut circles, squares, and rectangles; and cropped to isolate the shapes of the manhole covers.

graphical: Included is a navigational tool with the address location of each manhole cover and small description of the project as it evolves.

City Shields


Louise Levergneux

type: initiating


citizenship: Canadian


birth: 1954-11-28

Publication Information

edition type: editioned

publisher: self-published

place: Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

conception: 1999-09-09
production: 2000-00-00 - 2007-00-00
publication: 2006-12-10

edition size: 2001: 100 copies; 2006: 25 copies


horizontal: 10.5 inches closed

vertical: 10.5 inches closed

depth: 1 centimeter closed


cover: The insert for the 2001 release of seven volumes is printed on Ivolaser 240 gsm paper and the insert for the 2006 release of fourteen volumes is printed on Aspen Dual Sided Matte paper from MediaStreet.com. An image of a manhole cover of the city corresponding to the volume bleeds over the spine and the same image in reverse is seen on the back of the insert in a very light colour. The title “City Shields,” the volume number, and the name of the artist “Louise Levergneux” are the only text on the cover. The colophon and my logo are located on the back of the insert.

color: yes



pagination: paginated 2001: 18, 2006: 21

numbered?: unnumbered

signed?: unsigned


Plaques d’égouts collectionées au cours des kilomètres parcourus au Canada, aux États-Unis et en Écosse. Chaque volume contient 21 plaques d’égouts différentes. I would like to thank Michael Sutton for all the exciting travels and talks while photographing these manhole covers and to Topaz our little Sheltie for her patience. conception et texte : Louise Levergneux / traduction : France Simony impression : Epson Stylus Photo 2200 sur papier par Louise Levergneux découpe : Capitol Box et Pro Printers / habillage : étui en plastique transparent Manhole covers collected through miles of walking around Canada, the USA and Scotland. Each volume contains 21 different manhole covers. I would like to thank Michael Sutton for all the exciting travels and talks while photographing these manhole covers and to Topaz our little Sheltie for her patience. artist and text: Louise Levergneux / translation: France Simony printing: Epson Stylus Photo 2200 on Generation by Louise Levergneux cutting: Capitol Box and Pro Printers / cover: jewel case © 2006 Louise Levergneux, Ottawa Ontario Canada tous droits de reproduction et d’adaptation réservés / all rights reserved

Exhibition Information

exhibition history: 2007 National Gallery of Canada Library, presentation of “City Shields”, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 2007 Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, “Graphzines et autres publicatons d’artistes”, Montréal, Québec, Canada 2007 Hopkins Hall Gallery, The Ohio State University, “Text, Image, Form”, Columbus, Ohio, USA 2005 Learned Owl Bookstore, Hudson, Ohio, USA 2001 Nicholas Hoare Bookseller, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 2001 Collected Works, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

General Comments

[L. Levergneux]